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Antimicrobial resistance will kill 300 million by 2050 without action- TERA

The true cost of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will be 300 million premature deaths and up to $100 trillion (£64 trillion) lost to the global economy by 2050. This scenario is set out in a new report which looks to a future where drug resistance is not tackled between now and 2050.The report predicts that the [...]

Carbon and Water Footprints and Energy Use of Greenhouse Tomato Production in Northern Italy- TERA

This study reports on the carbon, water, and energy footprints of tomatoes grown in a greenhouse in Northern Italy and two possible future variations of heating and carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization on the current setup. The heat supply in place, consisting of natural gas (NG) and canola oil combustion, is compared to cogeneration and incineration [...]

On the Economics of Labels: How Their Introduction Affects the Functioning of Markets and the Welfare of All Participants- TERA

Are labels good or bad for consumers and firms? The answer may seem straightforward since labels improve information, yet economic theory reveals situations where their introduction reduces the welfare of at least some market participants. This essay reviews the theoretical literature on labels in order to identify and explain the main reasons that may cause [...]

A photocatalytic process for the eradication of dengue through ˙OH generation in the presence of sunlight and iron oxide- TERA

The autoclaved aerated concrete blocks support a low-cost iron oxide (Fe2O3) catalyst that is activated by the UV component of sunlight. This produces the hydroxyl radical (·OH), which degrades organic matter, including bacteria, fungi and plankton – food sources for Aedes aegypti larvae, and the larvae itself. Because the reactant is transformed into water after the process [...]

The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a- TERA

R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a [...]

Groundwater wells are in danger of running dry

A global analysis reveals growing societal dependence on the use of non-renewable freshwater resources that depletes groundwater reserves and undermines human resilience to water scarcity in a warming world. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/516179a

Carbon at the coastal interface: a smaller sink than once thought- TERA

The extent to which coastal-ocean regions act as a sink for carbon dioxide has been enigmatic. An estimate based on more than 3 million observations suggests a smaller sink than was thought, concentrated at high latitudes. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14082

Call to manage military land for the environment- TERA

A refocus on managing military training grounds for their value to the environment as well as to the armed forces would drastically increase the global terrestrial ‘protected area’ at minimal cost (see J. E. M. Watson et al. Nature 515, 67–73; 2014). We estimate that training areas total at least 50 miliion hectares, with the [...]

Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution- TERA

Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies [...]

Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset of collapse in mutualistic communities- TERA

Tipping points are crossed when small changes in external conditions cause abrupt unexpected responses in the current state of a system. In the case of ecological communities under stress, the risk of approaching a tipping point is unknown, but its stakes are high. Here, we test recently developed critical slowing-down indicators as early-warning signals for [...]